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  Most popular articles (Since May 08, 2015)

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Pulse therapy – A newer approach
Karuna Suran, Suran Pushpa
January-June 2017, 7(1):41-44
Pulse therapy is defined as discontinuous/intermittent intravenous infusion of very high doses of corticosteroids along with certain immunosuppressive agents over a short period. It has gained its popularity since last three decades due to the advantage of minimizing the adverse effects of conventional corticosteroid therapy, and their action is supposed to be mediated through nongenomic actions within the cell. The aim of pulse therapy is to achieve a faster response and stronger efficacy and to decrease the need for long-term use of systemic corticosteroids. This paper intends to review the various available pulse therapy regimens with dosages, indications, contraindications, and adverse effects.
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Gingival veneer: A prosthetic solution for the esthetically challenging black triangles: A case series
Cholan Ramanujam, Surya Rengasamy, Russia Marimuthu
January-June 2015, 5(1):23-26
Anterior dental esthetics becomes crucial in patients with periodontal disease with open embrasures, increased crown height, black triangles. This article describes a technique for fabrication of gingival veneer for patients with black triangles and gingival recession. This is a conservative method of obtaining esthetics with the advantage of predictable esthetics.
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Furcation involvement: Still a dilemma
Zoya Chowdhary, Ranjana Mohan
January-June 2017, 7(1):34-40
Advances in dentistry, as well as the increased desire of patients to maintain their dentition, have led to treatment of teeth that once would have been thought to be removed; as furcally involved teeth present unique challenges to the success of periodontal therapy. The treatment, management, and long-term retention of molar teeth exhibiting furcation invasions, always have been a challenge to the discerning general dentist or dental specialist. Anatomically and morphologically complicating factors dictate modifications in treatment approaches used for managing these areas. This review evaluates the different aspects of furcation in terms of etiology, classification, diagnosis, and various treatment possibilities. This review evaluates the different aspects of furcation in terms of aetiology, classification, diagnosis and various treatment possibilities.
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Assessment of awareness regarding biomedical waste management among students and interns of dental institute
Anita Rama Kahar, Amishi Arora, Usha Radke, Jayashree Joshi
July-December 2017, 7(2):65-70
Introduction: In teaching institutes, most of the patients got treated by the students and the interns. They are the budding dentist of dental health-care profession. As these students and the interns work in direct contact with biomedical waste (BMW), they should have proper knowledge about its management to avoid the associated risk. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate BMW education/awareness, awareness of BMW generation, hazard, and legislation and its management practices among the final BDS students and interns of VSPM Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was designed. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. The questionnaire was consisted of 19 close-ended questions and one open-ended question. It was distributed anonymously among BDS final year students and interns. The solved questionnaire was collected back after 10 min and the data were analyzed. Results and Conclusion: The present study showed that awareness regarding the BMW was good and awareness about its generation; hazards, legislation, and awareness about BMW practices were moderate to poor.
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Resolvins: A novel theraputic approach in treating periodontal disease
H Nilofer Farjana, Nithya Anand, SC Chandrasekaran
January-June 2015, 5(1):10-14
Unresolved inflammation is associated with several widely occurring diseases such as arthritis, periodontal diseases, cancer, and atherosclerosis. Endogenous mechanisms are that which curtail excessive inflammation. A newly emerging chemical mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids were identified that controls the acute inflammatory response by activating local resolution. They are specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators that includes lipoxins (LXs), resolvins (Rv), protectins, and maresins, because they are enzymatically biosynthesized during resolution of self-limited inflammation. They have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions of Rv of the D1 with up regulation of arachidonic acid-derived endogenous resolution pathways (LXA4). A novel therapeutic host modulating are for resolution of inflammation.
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Identification of gingival pigmentation patterns and its correlation with skin color, gender and gingival phenotype in an Indian population
Purshottam S Rakhewar, Harshal Pradip Patil, Manojkumar Thorat
July-December 2016, 6(2):87-92
Objectives: Esthetics and smile-enhancing treatments have become an integral part of the dentistry; people always consult with periodontist for obtaining acceptable gingival esthetics. In smile designing esthetics, the color of gingiva has a major role. Although there is no any gold standard technique for managing melanin hyperpigmentation, esthetic concerns have lead increasing awareness about different depigmentation procedures. The aim of this study is to identify gingival melanin pigmentation patterns and to investigate its relationship based on clinical analysis with skin color, gender and gingival phenotype for various treatment modalities. Methods: In total, 200 subjects without any systemic disease (100 males and 100 females with mean age 26.5 years) screened by a single person and categorized them by skin color as fair, wheatish, brown, and dark to identify the different distribution patterns of gingival melanin pigmentation anatomically. Along with this severity of melanin pigmentation and gingival phenotypes were assessed. By using a Chi-square test correlations of variables were checked. Results: A positive statistical correlation was noticed between severity of gingival pigmentation and skin color. Dark-skinned subjects had heavy gingival pigmentation. The majority of population had pigmentation in attached gingiva and interdental papillae. Conclusion: Within the limits of the present study, the majority of population showed a positive correlation with their skin color and the severity of melanin pigmentation.
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Perioceutics - Where do we stand?
Pavithra Rangarajan Seshadri, Krishnan Viswanathan
January-June 2015, 5(1):15-22
Periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease of the supporting structures of the teeth, characterized by destruction of the bone and connective tissue. Specific periodontopathic bacteria and their virulence factors are the primary etiologic agents. However, the interaction of host defense mechanisms and these etiological agents play an important role in the onset and progression of the disease. Research began to focus very closely on bacterial-host interaction, leading to host bacterial interrelationship era. The shift in concentration on host response has led to the development of host modulatory therapies which could improve therapeutic outcomes, slow the progression of disease, allow for more predictable management of patients, and possibly even work as preventive agents against the development of periodontitis. This paper reviews the host modulatory therapy, which is the effective means when used as an adjunct to mechanical periodontal therapy in treating periodontal diseases.
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Karyotype analysis for Turner syndrome
HS Vanishree, Shobha Bijjaraji, Anand S Tegginamani
January-June 2017, 7(1):52-54
The first karyotype investigation in a patient with Turner syndrome (TS) was performed in England, in 1959; prior to that, it was thought that humans possessed 48 chromosomes. Most individuals with down-syndrome possess 47 chromosomes, with an extra copy of chromosome 21. Most individuals with TS possess 45 chromosomes, with a missing X chromosome. Here, we present 45 XO karyotype analysis in a 12-year-old girl with TS; although it is common in females, it is still rare to encounter in dental institutions. Oral physicians and pediatric dentists need to be aware of the major clinical features for definitive diagnosis of TS for early recognition and timely investigation which will improve their quality of life and to guide for the oral care.
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Injuries to oral soft tissues by different factors: A clinical study
Smit Singla, Akhilesh Verma, Snehil Goyal, Itika Singla, Anjali Shetty
January-June 2016, 6(1):7-10
Background: Injuries to oral soft tissues are common. These can be caused by chemical, thermal, physical agents, self-mutilation, denture associated, etc., In this study, 110 patients were included from western Punjab population coming for routine checkup. Different causes for different types of injuries were noticed and tabulated to find the percentage of each cause, causing injuries to oral soft tissue. Objective: To determine the quantitative analysis of different causes which are a causative factor of oral injuries. Methods: The sample for the study consisted of 110 patients undergoing routine dental checkup in the dental center. Quantitative analysis of each causing factor was done by taking proper history from the patients and careful oral examination. Results: Females are more prone to soft tissue injuries as compared to males, and chemical burn is most common cause of soft tissue injury found in 44 patients followed by denture associated ulcers in 36 patients out of 110 patients.
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Influence of music therapy to reduce anxiety during dental procedures in the Department of Prosthodontics
Neelam Abhay Pande, Jayashri Chahande, Usha Radke
July-December 2017, 7(2):75-81
Background: Music surrounds our lives. Music therapists assess emotional well-being, physical health, social functioning, and communication activities through musical responses. During all types of dental treatments, patients are very much apprehensive about the procedures. In prosthodontics, tooth preparation, patient's anxiety levels can be reduced, if his/her mind is diverted to listen to music, thus getting maximum cooperation. Aim: To reduce the anxiety levels in patients receiving fixed partial dentures (FPDs), by listening to passive music using earphones. This was a randomized control experimental study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients requiring FPDs between the ages of 18 and 45 years were randomly selected. Patients dental anxiety scale (DAS) and their blood pressure (BP) as well as heart rate (HR) were recorded before starting the procedure. They were divided into two groups: Group I as control (without music) and Group II (with music, where patients listened to the passive music using earphones throughout the treatment). In both the groups, patient's BP and HR were also recorded at the end of impression making. The data were tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact tests. Results: From DAS scale analysis, among patients with medium and high levels of anxiety, music had a significant influence on their fear and comfort. Findings of Group I and Group II in hemodynamic variables were also much comparable including dentist's rating and patient's behavior, treatability, and cooperation during the procedure. Conclusion: The influence of music showed reduced anxiety levels among patients receiving FPDs. It also helped lower the level of tension, better treatability, and better adjustment to the prosthodontic treatment.
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Immunity and periodontics: Connecting the dots
HS Grover, Rohit Saini, Pearl Bhardwaj, Amit Bhardwaj
July-December 2015, 5(2):62-67
Immunity is divided into two parts – the innate and adaptive responses. The innate immune system relies upon limited receptors to detect invading pathogens but compensates by targeting conserved microbial components that are shared by the large groups of pathogens. Various cells involved in innate immune responses include neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cell, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and eosinophils. The innate immune responses are the first line of defense against invading pathogens. They are also required to initiate specific adaptive immune responses. The second kind of protection is adaptive immunity which develops throughout our lives. It uses two basic strategies – Humoral immunity which works to eliminate antigens that are extracellular and cellular immunity which deals with antigen residing within a host cell. T- and B-lymphocytes are the main self-defense weapons of the adaptive immune system. Adaptive immunity relies upon a clonal system with each T-cell and B-cell expressing its own unique receptor.
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Systemic management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis
A Winnifred Christy, J Leelavathy, T Jones Raja Devathambi, VM Roobitha
July-December 2015, 5(2):72-76
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is the most common chronic disease of the oral cavity, affecting 5–25% of the population. The underlying etiology remains unclear, and no curative treatment is available. Local treatment will suffice for the majority of aphthous ulcers and only in the case of continuous outbreaks and symptoms systemic drug should be prescribed as pain is intense, and topical treatment is unable to afford symptoms relief. Systemic therapy is indicated in such situations with the triune action of providing symptom relief, promoting wound healing, and preventing recurrence. A PubMed search with the keywords of aphthous ulcers and systemic management was done, and all clinical trials and review articles in English literature from 1985 to 2014 were retrieved and compiled.
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Ortho-perio integration: An orthodontic review
Luv Agarwal, Ragni Tandon, Shrish Srivastava, Ankit Gupta
July-December 2016, 6(2):99-103
A multidisciplinary approach including an orthodontist and a periodontist is done in patients with periodontal disease. Both specialists should be involved in the treatment planning of such patients, and care should be taken in evaluation of progress of the treatment undertaken. Importance of multidisciplinary approach has increased as majority of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults. Orthodontic patients are highly susceptible to increased accumulation of plaque which makes integration of a periodontist very essential. Careful attention needs to be given to orthodontic patients as undesirable periodontal changes are seen. The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of both specialties and in which conditions they are used as an adjunct and the mutual benefits shared by them.
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Correlation of dental caries and blood group in Western Punjab population in India
Smit Singla, Akhilesh Verma, Snehil Goyal, Itika Singla, Anjali Shetty
July-December 2015, 5(2):59-61
Background: Prevalence and treatment of the caries disease are interconnected concepts. Association between dental caries and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to Western Punjab region. Objective: To determine the severity of dental caries in each type of blood group (ABO). Methods: The sample for the study consisted of 150 patients undergoing routine dental checkup in the dental center. Correlation between dental caries and blood groups were done using decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Results: There is increased the prevalence of dental caries in nonsecretor as compared to secretors in Western Punjab population. Conclusion: Non secretors are more prone to dental caries as compared to secretors.
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Assessment of bone healing around immediately loading dental implants in posterior maxilla with two different osteotomy techniques
Mahmoud A Abdelkarim, Mohammed Said Hamed, Mohammed A Elsholkamy, Abdelbadia Abdallah Abdelmabood
January-June 2015, 5(1):31-39
The posterior region of the maxilla is characterized by thin cortical bone and trabecular bone of low-density. In addition, in many instances the height of the bone in this region is insufficient to achieve high primary stability because of the presence of the maxillary sinus. The aim of this study was to assess bone healing around immediately loaded dental implants in the posterior maxillary region with two different osteotomy techniques, conventional technique versus condensing technique. Twenty implants were inserted in 10 patients each patient received 2 implants. One implant was inserted by a conventional technique other implant was inserted by condensing technique one on each side of the maxilla. The follow-up was done at the following intervals, immediate postoperative, 6-, 12-, and 24-week. One implant from the group of condensing technique showed failure after 4 weeks. The results of this research demonstrate the success rate was 90% for condensing group and 100% for the conventional group.
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Cystic hygroma: Clinical, ultrasonographic, and cytological co-relation
Rakhi Chandak, Manoj Chandak, Shivlal Rawlani
January-June 2016, 6(1):52-54
Cystic hygromas are rare, congenital, benign lesions occurring early in life, mainly in the head, neck, and oral cavity. It is an aberrant proliferation of lymphatic vessels resulting from abnormal development of the lymphatic system. Lymphangiomas are classified as microcystic, macrocystic, and cystic hygromas according to the size of the lymphatic cavities incorporated. They are soft, vary in size and shape, and tend to grow extensively if not surgically excised. They are multilocular cysts filled with clear or yellow lymph fluid. Histopathologically, lymphangiomas are of three types: Lymphangioma simplex, cavernous lymphangioma, and cystic hygroma depending on the size of vascular spaces and thickness of the adventitia. The present report describes a case of cystic hygroma of the left posterior region of jaw in an 11-year-old male child and its clinical, ultrasonographic, and cytological correlation.
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The prevalence of gingivitis and periodontal diseases in preschool children in Kolkata
Suchetana Goswami, Subrata Saha
January-June 2017, 7(1):3-7
Background: Gingivitis is common in children which if neglected may progress to periodontitis in the adults. Therefore, early diagnosis of gingivitis and appropriate therapeutic measures in children are of utmost importance to prevent or minimize progression of periodontitis in the adult population. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis among preschool children in Kolkata. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 200 children aged 2–5 years were performed from March 2015 to February 2016. The gingival index (GI) and pocket depth of fully erupted teeth were measured. Results: The comparison (t-test) of mean pocket depth was least (0.89 mm) between 3- and 4-year-old children and was highest (3.09 mm) between 2- and 4-year-old children. The mean GI among boys and girls differ significantly (P < 0.001). The boys had a higher GI and pocket depth than girls the mean GI in school going children was 0.67 ± 0.22 and in nonschool going children, it was 1.189 ± 0.12, and mean pocket depth was 2.05 ± 0.32 and 2.77 ± 0.55, respectively. The mean GI and pocket depth in children of upper and lower socioeconomic condition differ significantly. Conclusion: Preschool children in and around Kolkata suffer from varying degree of gingival diseases, and comprehensive preventive programs are needed to improve their oral health.
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Pro-Argin: A promising technology for dental hypersensitivity
Mythri Halappa, Prasun Roy, JV Bharateesh, KR Kashinath
July-December 2015, 5(2):68-71
Dentin hypersensitivity is a common occurrence and is often a chief concern among patients. The successful management of dentin hypersensitivity is often very challenging for the dental professional as the cause of the pain and the description of the discomfort varies. There are traditional methods that have been clinically evaluated and found to be effective, but a more effective, faster acting, and long-lasting treatment is required. Hence, Pro-Argin technology is considered to be a promising treatment for dentin hypersensitivity and stain removal.
  3,878 19 -
Maxillary canine impaction to treat or not
Swet Nisha, Pratibha Shashikumar, Sourav Chandra
July-December 2017, 7(2):124-128
Management of impacted canine teeth requires early diagnosis and interception of the clinical situation. Various treatment modalities are available in literature, and the clinical situation may demand interdisciplinary approach. The treatment options should be time- and cost-effective with promising result both functionally and esthetically. This review article is an overview of etiology, diagnosis, and treatment modalities for the management of impacted canine.
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A new innovative light-emitting diode habit-breaking appliance
Anurag Sahu, Tarulatha Revanappa Shyagali
July-December 2017, 7(2):149-151
The aim of the present case report is to introduce a modified and innovative design for effective habit breaking with minimal patient discomfort. Abnormal oral habits are one of the major etiological factors in malocclusion. The harmful, unbalanced pressure bears upon the immature, highly malleable alveolar ridges and brings about potential changes in the position of teeth and occlusion. These habits can also cause behavioral problems and are socially unacceptable. Various methods and appliances are used to break the abnormal oral habits, as a part of treatment of malocclusion. The traditional habit-breaking appliances used so far can cause irritation to the tongue, subsequently leading to ulceration and in addition can also cause mastication and speech problems. The appliance is a regular Hawley's appliance with the addition of the light-emitting diode bulb and the switch. When the child's tongue or the finger touches the appliance, the light bulb gets illuminated, thus reminding the child to quit the habit. The said appliance utilizes easily available electrical gadgets that will function by disturbing the subconsciously built vicious cycle. The reminders send by its activation will break the pleasure perception obtained during the habit. Habit breaking through this appliance is effective as it is superior to other appliances in the mode of action as well as the design itself is attractive to the children.
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Unveiling the impacted incisor
Aniket Potnis, Chirag Panchasara, Ashutosh Shetty, US Krishna Nayak
January-June 2015, 5(1):27-30
Missing and unerupted maxillary incisors can have a major impact on dental and facial esthetics and were considered to be the most unattractive deviant occlusal trait. There are very few studies reporting any functional problems associated with the missing anterior teeth although some speech difficulties have been reported, particularly with the "s" sound. Although impaction of permanent tooth is rarely diagnosed during the mixed dentition period, an impacted central incisor is usually diagnosed accurately when there is delay in the eruption of tooth. As missing upper incisors are regarded as unattractive, this may have an effect on self-esteem and general social interaction and it is important to detect and manage the problem as early as possible. This case report describes the treatment of a patient with a horizontally impacted maxillary central incisor. Due to a midline shift and lack of space in the upper arch, a two stage treatment plan was developed. In the first stage, space was created by using a closed coil spring. The second stage involved surgical exposure and traction of the impacted central incisor. The patient finished treatment with a normal and stable occlusion between the maxillary and mandibular arches and an adequate width of attached gingiva.
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Histomorphometric and histological evaluations of the simvastatin effect on alveolar bone loss induced by cyclosporine A in rats
Samir Hagar, Shafik Sahar, Yahia Mona, Mamdouh Nancy
January-June 2015, 5(1):2-9
Background: Cyclosporin-A- has been used as an immunosuppressant to prevent the rejection of organ transplants. However, alveolar bone loss is an important negative side-effect of this drug. Simvastatin, a hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, is known to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. It has advanced effects on bone formation in vivo and in vitro. So,we evaluated the histological and histomorphometric analysis of osteoblast and osteoclast cells after administration of simvastatin in cyclosporin-A-associated alveolar bone loss in rats. Aim of the Study: To evaluate the effect of simvastatin and cyclosporin -A- on Alveolar bone by investigating the histological and histomorphometric results of osteoblast and osteoclast cells. Materials and Methods: 24 adult male rats will be divided into 3 groups: Group I: Control group; 4 rats, Group II: cyclosporine -A- group; 10 rats (10 mg/kg) subcutaneous injection, Group III: cyclosporine -A-/simvastatin group; 10 rats, simvastatin will be taken orally daily (20mg/kg/day). Two rats from the control group and 5 rats from each of the studied experimental groups (group II & III) were sacrificed on days 15 and 30 consecutively using Histological and Histomorphometric investigations. Results: Histological results revealed higher bone volume and osteoblast cells, and decreased number of osteoclast cells in Simvastatin group than in CsA group. The same results was statistically significant in Histomorphometric results of both osteoblast and osteoclast cells counts. In Histomorphometrical analysis showed a significant increase of osteoblast cells in Simvastatin group than CsA group, and significant decrease of osteoclast cells in Simvastatin group than CsA group. Conclusion: We can conclude that Simvastatin counteract the adverse effect of CsA induced alveolar bone loss that induced new bone formation.
  3,458 16 -
Squamous cells and keratin pearls in fine-needle aspiration and frozen section: A pitfall in the diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma
Ankita Baldwa, Rashmi Krishnappa, Aarathi Rau, Usha Muniyappa, G Girish
January-June 2016, 6(1):48-51
Intraosseous involvement of jaw bones are commonly seen with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity. Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is a rare malignant odontogenic neoplasm that tends to occur in mandible with or without intraosseous involvement. We present one such rare case of, 60-year-old female with gray white growth in the left lower buccal cavity with enlarged lymph nodes. The computed tomography scan showed a mass from the left submandibular salivary gland and fine-needle aspiration was suggestive of malignant salivary gland tumor. The patient was posted for frozen section and mandibulectomy. Frozen section showed squamous cells with keratin pearl formation suggestive of metastatic SCC. The routine histopathology proved it as AC with keratin pearl formation. With this case, we would like to highlight the pitfalls, difficulties, and importance in the diagnosis of AC.
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Autotransplantation of palatally impacted maxillary canine
Meena M Vora, Punam N Nagargoje
January-June 2016, 6(1):45-47
The occurrence of canine impaction is not a rare phenomenon. We report a case of horizontally placed palatally impacted maxillary canine in a 21-year-old male patient. The purpose of this report was to describe a patient undergoing autotransplantation of an impacted maxillary canine to its normal position in the dental arch.
  3,306 24 -
Critical analysis of classification system of partially edentulous spaces: A literature review
SC Ahila, S Suganya, B Muthukumar
January-June 2019, 9(1):49-57
There are more than 65,000 possible combinations of standing teeth and edentulous spaces which are encountered in the human dental arch. The system of classifying the partially edentulous arch would be an enormous aid in providing a precise word picture of a particular dental arch that is to be discussed. However, there are numerous classification systems which create confusion. Hence, a broad search of published literature was performed electronically using the keyword classification, partially edentulous, and denture from January 1928 to December 2018. This article enlisted the various classification systems and its critical analysis.
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