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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2019
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-67

Online since Friday, October 11, 2019

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GUEST EDITORIAL  

Dental practice management in the dental curriculum p. 1
Thangadurai Maheswaran
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_19_19  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Patient satisfaction after rehabilitation with tooth-supported fixed partial dentures: A cross-sectional study p. 3
Rajlakshmi Banerjee, Vijeta Gajbhiye, Usha Radke, Trupti Bangare
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_36_18  
Introduction: Patients' perceptions of their oral health status are important outcomes in prosthodontics. There is an increasing realization that patient evaluation of the satisfaction with the worth of such treatment must be a consideration in any measure of overall prosthodontic success. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the patients' satisfaction after rehabilitation with fixed partial dentures (FPDs) considering esthetic and functional outcome as well as comfort and overall quality of life after treatment. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients undergoing FPD treatment at the Department of Prosthodontics, VSPM Dental College and Research Centre, Nagpur, were selected to participate in the cross-sectional study using a patient satisfaction questionnaire after a week of insertion of the FPD prosthesis. Results: About 86.3% of the examined patients were satisfied with the fixed prosthesis, whereas 13.7% were not satisfied with their fixed prosthesis. Ninety-four percent of the patients were satisfied with the appearance of the prosthesis immediately after placement which increased to 98% after a week of cementing the prostheses. Regarding the functioning masticatory ability, 91% of the examined patients were satisfied with the fixed prosthesis. On evaluation of the patient satisfaction for cleansability and awareness of oral hygiene practices, 58% of patients were happy with the cleansability of the prosthesis, whereas 42% were unsatisfied with the cleaning of their prosthesis. Three percent of patients complained of bad taste and foul odor from the base of the prosthesis. Conclusion: Factors such as cleansability and comfort of the fixed prosthesis also play an important role along with appearance and masticatory ability while considering the patient satisfaction and success of prosthesis. Counseling the patients regarding unrealistic expectations should be taken care of right from the diagnosis and treatment planning stage to ensure high satisfaction level and overall success of the fixed prosthodontic treatment.
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Comparative evaluation of the effect of three medications on the color stability of two commercially available acrylic resin denture teeth after thermocycling – An in vitro study p. 9
Neelam Pande, Sayali Kulkarni, Priti Jaiswal, Jayshri Chahande
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_1_19  
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to estimate the color stability of two commercially available acrylic resin teeth and the effect of three types of medications after thermocycling, by spectrophotometric analysis. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of three types of medications – iron syrup, cough syrup, and digestive syrup on the color stability of two commercially available acrylic resin denture teeth after thermocycling. Materials and Methods: Total 160 samples were divided into two main groups. The samples were first thermocycled and randomly divided into subgroups according to the respective brands and were subjected to baseline spectrophotometric measurement and then immersed in respective medication solutions. After 4 weeks, color measurements were recorded for all samples. Color differences were determined by ΔE* and National Bureau of Standards units (NBS units). Results: After ΔE evaluation, control groups had values A1 (0.509) and B1 (0.498). Color differences with ΔE values above 3.7 were observed in all the test subgroups. When the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) values were evaluated, iron syrup was observed to cause “much” change in both the subgroups A2 (7.835) and B2 (7.843), but more color change was observed in B2. Conclusion: Acry Rock denture teeth were more color stable than Rolex in three medications. Most chromogenic staining medication was found to be iron syrup, which caused “much” color changes, followed by digestive syrup. Moreover, the least staining medication was cough syrup, which caused “appreciable” color changes according to the NBS critical remarks of color differences.
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Prevalence of risk to develop obstructive sleep apnea in Bengali children using pediatric sleep questionnaire p. 18
Paridhee Jalan, Trisha Das Sarma, Biswaroop Chandra, Gautam Kumar Kundu
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_7_19  
Context: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is being recognized as a serious medical condition, having various long-term effects on a child's well-being. However, very few epidemiological data are present for the Indian children who could be at risk for this condition. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine children aged 2–14 years who are at risk to develop OSA using the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ). Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the postgraduate clinic of the department of pedodontics where participants were selected by a simple random sampling method. A sample size of 120 children aged 2–14 years was taken, whose parents were asked to fill the PSQ. Subjects and Methods: Children who had 8 “yes” responses of 22 questions were given a PSQ score ≥0.33 and were considered the OSA risk group. OSA risk group was further subgrouped based on gender, age, and questions with frequent yes answers. Statistical Analysis Used: Test of proportion and Chi-square test with the help of Epi Info (TM) were used in this study. Results: No statistically significant association was seen between risk to develop OSA with gender and age of patients. However, proportion of males with PSQ >0.33 was higher than that of females. Similarly, proportion of patients with PSQ >0.33 in the age group of 6–10 years, followed by the age group of 0–5 years, was significantly higher. Statistically significant association was found between OSA and hyperactive and interruptive behaviors displayed by the child patients. Conclusions: PSQ is a reliable tool to determine children at risk to develop OSA and can be routinely used for early diagnosis of pediatric OSA.
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Assessment of habit of self-medication among non-teaching staff of private dental institute p. 23
Akanksha Mukwane, Rohit Moharil, Anita Rama Kahar, Jayashree Joshi
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_14_19  
Background: Self-medication refers to the use of medicines without prescription to treat self-identified illness. It is a worldwide prevalent practice. It is a common scenario that personnel engaged in health-care setup are closely related to the medicines which physicians prescribe, as a result of which they practice self-medication as well as prescribe medication to others also. The present study is aimed at assessment of habit of self-medication among nonteaching staff of VSPM Dental College. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the habit of self-medication among nonteaching staff of VSPM Dental College and Research Centre (DC and RC), Nagpur. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 65 nonteaching staff of VSPM DC and RC, Nagpur. The informed consent was obtained from the participants. A prevalidated questionnaire was distributed among them, and data were collected by interview survey method. Results: Self-medication was highly prevalent among the participants of the present study. 53.48% of participants often self-medicate and 74% of them advised medications to others also. Majority of them (54.28%) were taking self-medication, as it was a time-saving option for them; 27.14% among them said that there is no need to visit a physician in case of minor illness. 69.80% of them visit a doctor only in case of serious illness, and very few, i.e., 12.30% were going for regular checkup. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication practices was alarmingly high in the present study. The holistic approach must be taken to prevent this problem from rising which would involve awareness and education regarding the implications of self-medication.
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Cyclic fatigue life assessment of a M-Wire nickel-titanium reciprocating file in a 90° canal curvature: An in vitro study p. 27
Sahil Chanian, Nandini Suresh, N Velmurugan, L Karthik
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_23_19  
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the cyclic fatigue life of WaveOne Gold and WaveOne files in a reciprocating motion using a dynamic testing model. In addition, the present study was also employed to assess the mode of fracture under scanning electron microscope. Study Design: A total of 24 new reciprocating files were divided into two groups where Group I consisted of 12 samples of size 25, 0.07 taper WaveOne Gold and Group II consisted of 12 samples of size 25, 0.08 taper WaveOne files. After the initial inspection, all the files were subjected to cyclic fatigue testing fabricated with a 90° angle of curvature and a 5 mm radius. Results: The mean time to fracture for WaveOne Gold and WaveOne was found to be 268.33 and 210.92 s, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the WaveOne Gold and WaveOne groups in reciprocating motion. The mean length of the fractured segment of WaveOne Gold and WaveOne were also calculated where the difference was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: WaveOne Gold reciprocating files were found to be more resistant and performed better to cyclic fatigue than WaveOne file in a 90° canal curvature.
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Bacteria colonizing acrylic resin complete dentures, after long-term use and the 1st week of new dentures placement p. 32
Waseem Mushtaha
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_26_19  
Purpose: The study aims to identify the bacteria present in acrylic complete dentures after long-term use and after the 1st week of placing a new denture. Subjects and Methods: A total of seven subjects presented to the Department of Removable Prosthodontics Clinic, Al Azhar University, Gaza, Palestine, who had old and new complete dentures took part in this study. The inner and outer surfaces of the complete denture bases of both upper and lower dentures were sampled, the samples were cultured, and the bacterial type was determined by microbiological methods. Results: Of the seven subjects studied, five subjects have shown Staphylococcus (STAPH) spp. in the inner and outer surfaces of both upper and lower dentures for the old and the new as well, while one subject has shown the STAPH spp. also on the lower surfaces of both old and new denture, but the upper surfaces showed no bacterial growth. The last subject had grown bacteria on both upper and lower old dentures, but in the new denture, the bacteria grew only in the upper surface. Conclusion: STAPH spp. showed a great prevalence in both old and 1 week of dentures in use as it predominated in the inner tissue surfaces as well as the outer polished surfaces.
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Correlation of stress and periodontal disease severity among coal mine workers in Tamil Nadu: A clinicobiochemical study p. 36
B Na Vinoth Kumar, Pratebha Balu, Jananni Muthu, R Saravana Kumar, I Karthikeyan, S Sakthi Devi
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_22_19  
Background: Working environment has a huge impact on both general and oral health. Coal mining is one of the age-old industries throughout the world and in India. Occupational stress is high among coal mine workers. Stress contributes to periodontal disease severity and progression. In literature, there is hardly any information available regarding the estimation of stress among coal mine workers. Thus, the purpose of the study was to estimate stress in terms of salivary cortisol levels and to correlate the same with periodontal disease severity among coal mine workers in Tamil Nadu. Methods: Forty systemically healthy coal mine workers above 18 years of age were enrolled in the study. Information regarding socioeconomic status and habits, followed by clinical examination including periodontal parameters such as probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), number of missing teeth, and Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) Index were recorded using a standard pro forma. Unstimulated saliva was collected, and cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson's correlation was done to correlate the salivary cortisol level and periodontal parameters. Results: The salivary cortisol level was assessed for 40 participants. Out of 40 participants, 80% of them were either user of smoking or smokeless forms or both. Only 20% were nonusers. The mean salivary cortisol levels were found to be higher among the past smokers and current users of smokeless tobacco (9.31 ± 0). There was a positive correlation between CAL, PPD, PSR, and missing teeth and salivary cortisol levels ( r = 0.801, 0.800, 0.581, and 0.473, respectively) and were statistically significant. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there was a high correlation between salivary cortisol and periodontal disease severity among coal mine workers and the results were statistically significant.
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Assessment of performance of dental students of different learning styles using different teaching aids p. 40
Anita Rama Kahar, Jayashree Joshi, Jaishree Chahande, Vrinda Kolte, Usha Radke
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_18_19  
Background: In this innovative era of teaching and learning, today's teaching methodology has shifted from chalk and board to modern teaching. Due to the introduction of dental education technology, teachers training programs, conferences on teaching, the teaching has been modified a lot. The teachers deliver a multimodal type of lecture which suits to each student's learning style. The teachers deliver best to each and every student by taking the help of new innovative ideas and technology. Hence, this study was conducted to find the performance of students when they were taught in current teaching way and when they were taught according to their learning style. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of students when they were taught by current teaching and in their own learning styles. Methodology: An experimental study was conducted among first-year BDS students of VSPM DCRC, Nagpur, Maharashtra. VARK questionnaire was used to assess the learning style. The students were divided into control and learning style groups, and a pretest was conducted. The control group was taught by current teaching practice and the learning style group was taught as per their learning styles, and the posttest was conducted. Pre- and posttest results were compared. Results: Posttest results of both the groups were found to be statistically nonsignificant ( P = 0.9344). Conclusion: By getting the results, we can make the conclusion that current teaching and teaching in learning style of students are beneficial to all students of different learning styles.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Role of lipoxins in the resolution of inflammation p. 45
Supritha S Pai, Nina Shenoy
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_38_18  
Periodontal disease is initiated by a group of oral bacteria that stimulate local inflammatory responses, leading to bleeding on probing, loss of periodontal attachment, and bone and ultimately tooth loss. In periodontitis , host bacterial interactions that initiate as an acute inflammatory response develop into a chronic stage which is ruled by macrophages , B-lyphocytes, intense T-Lymphocytes and finally causes the destruction of periodontium. Over the past decade, understanding of pathways of inflammation has matured, and better understanding of the molecular basis of resolution of inflammation has emerged. Resolution of inflammation is an active, agonist-mediated, well-orchestrated return of tissue homeostasis. The mediators that are involved in the resolution of inflammation are lipoxins (LXs), resolvins, maresins, and protectins. This article reviews recent findings and new concepts pertaining to the generation of LXs and their impact on the resolution of inflammation.
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Critical analysis of classification system of partially edentulous spaces: A literature review p. 49
SC Ahila, S Suganya, B Muthukumar
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_43_18  
There are more than 65,000 possible combinations of standing teeth and edentulous spaces which are encountered in the human dental arch. The system of classifying the partially edentulous arch would be an enormous aid in providing a precise word picture of a particular dental arch that is to be discussed. However, there are numerous classification systems which create confusion. Hence, a broad search of published literature was performed electronically using the keyword classification, partially edentulous, and denture from January 1928 to December 2018. This article enlisted the various classification systems and its critical analysis.
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Bone morphogenetic proteins: Revivifying periodontium p. 58
Himani Sharma, Anamika Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_21_19  
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a family of signaling molecules, are considered to be a central factor present in the bone matrix. Originally discovered by Urist, they have been shown to affect a wide variety of cell types and processes beyond bone and osteogenesis. They are important morphogens in embryogenesis and development and also regulate the maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis. The loss of alveolar bone is a common consequence of periodontal disease. The regeneration of periodontal structures requires an environment consisting of cells, scaffold, and signaling molecules. The emergence of tissue engineering has enabled the mass production of BMPs, to be utilized refining the biomimetic scaffolds, thus facilitating an alternative to treatment approach in bone regeneration lost due to the disease process. This review discusses the critical data on the discovery of BMPs, its structure, mechanisms of action, and potential therapeutic application in periodontal regeneration.
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CASE REPORT Top

A single-visit feeding plate for a 14-day-old neonate with cleft palate p. 64
S Mohammed Imthiyas, Bala Subramanian, Prabhu Karupiah, Kirubakaran Urjan, VC Karthik, Ramesh Karthik
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_41_18  
Cleft palate is the most common congenital maxillofacial defect, compared to clefts of other facial structures. A feeding plate is a prosthetic aid designed to obturate the cleft so that the infant can generate negative pressure within the oral cavity, which is necessary for sucking. A 14-day-old infant, with no contributory medical and family history, was referred to the department of prosthodontics. The mother reported that the infant was not able to suckle milk properly even with the use of typical cleft nipples or squeezable bottles. The final impression was made with very high-viscosity condensation silicone rubber base impression material. The secondary impression was poured with dental stone to obtain a master cast, blocking out the undercuts with pink wax, and then, the plate was fabricated using self-cured acrylic resin. The feeding plate was checked in the dental clinic, and the patient's mother was asked to feed the baby. Instructions were provided on how to use, clean, function, and maintain the feeding appliance. The feeding plate was delivered on the same day considering high anxiety of the mother regarding the diminished weight of her infant relative to his age.
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