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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2018
Volume 8 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 55-131

Online since Monday, December 31, 2018

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GUEST EDITORIAL  

Increasing cancer burden: Time to modify lifestyle behaviours p. 55
S Leena Sankari
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_42_18  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Effect of direct administration of functional foods on oral flora in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment p. 57
T Jaya Chandra, Anoosha Manda
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_12_18  
Introduction: Orthodontic treatment facilitates the growth of pathogens and leads to white spot lesions and caries formation. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics on the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples were collected from the patients who were undergoing comprehensive orthodontic treatment at two different time intervals, baseline (T0) and postintervention (T1) that is 1 month after administration of prebiotic, probiotic, and symbiotic bacteria, respectively, for Groups A, B, and C; placebo was included in Group D. Samples were inoculated on selective media, after incubation growth was identified. Colony counts were recorded in colony forming units per milliliter. Paired t-test, analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey's honest significant difference test were used for analysis, and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Among the participants, S.mutans counts were found to be decreased (P < 0.05) and lactobacilli and bifidobacterium counts were found to be increased (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Short-term consumption of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics had effectively reduced the S. mutans levels in the oral cavity with increased levels of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium when compared with the placebo group.
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Oral cancer awareness and attitude toward its screening: A study among people with different occupations p. 61
Tathagata Bhattacharjee, Somnath Gangopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_19_18  
Background: The number of oral cancer cases is increasing in India. The prevalence of this disease is increasing in various occupational groups. Aims: This study aimed to assess the awareness of oral cancer and attitude toward screening and the prevalence of related habits and habit-related oral lesions among people with different occupations. Settings and Design: Sixteen closed-ended questions were used to assess the awareness of oral cancer. Responses were scored in accordance with the defined rules. Patients' attitude toward oral cancer screening was also assessed using ten additional questions under four headings. Information regarding the oral habits was recorded using the WHO steps questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Distribution of occupation in the study population was categorized as per the International Standard Classification of Occupations-08 structure and all the study samples ware clinically examined to diagnose any habit-related oral changes. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's independent sample's t-test was applied to compare normally distributed numerical variables between groups; unpaired proportions were compared by Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the means of three or more samples for numerical data. Results and Conclusion: A statistically significant difference (P = 0.0001) in general awareness of oral cancer was seen among various occupational groups. The attitude toward oral cancer screening was assessed and found no statistically significant results, which signifies that significant motivation for oral cancer screening is required in different occupational workplaces.
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An online survey about awareness and motivation regarding periodontal health in Maharashtra p. 71
Priyanka Gangadhar Kapse, Ramreddy K Yeltiwar, Pallavi K Patil, Kaustubh S Thakare
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_21_18  
Context: Chronic periodontitis is multifactorial disease with high prevalence rate in India. Motivation in periodontitis patients is thought to play a major role in influencing periodontal health in this patient. This online study focuses on different areas for motivation such as age, financial, and educational status including different health-care professionals. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate awareness, behavior, and motivation regarding periodontal disease in general population and health professionals (dental and medical) in Maharashtra state with aim and objectives to assess the patient's knowledge and concern about the importance of self-care in controlling periodontal disease. Settings, Design, Subjects, and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1001 participants ranging between 20 and 60 years old. The questionnaire was prepared and circulated by the mobile application (WhatsApp). A questionnaire consisting of multiple choice questions was used as assessment tool and its content evaluated the patients profile, their knowledge about periodontal disease, the dental professional's commitment to instruct the patients toward their behavior concerning oral hygiene along with their perception of the importance of self-care for disease control and knowledge and motivation in dental and medical professionals about periodontal health. Statistical Analysis Used: The completed questionnaires were then analyzed statistically on survey monkey website to obtain the results through tables and graphs of the frequency distribution. Results: The result of this study shows basic awareness about oral hygiene in educated population but an acute lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge of oral hygiene in general population. Conclusions: Hence, there is an urgent need for comprehensive educational programs to promote good oral health and impart education about the correct oral hygiene practices. There is need for awareness not only in the general population but also in health-care professionals too.
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Evaluation of knowledge and attitude about gingival displacement materials and techniques among dental practitioners p. 76
Vijeta Gajbhiye, Rajlakshmi Banerjee, Usha Radke, Anuj Chandak, Priti Jaiswal
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_27_18  
Statement of Problem: Edentulism is a condition that critically affects the quality of life of patients by compromising function as well as esthetics. Fixed partial dentures have been a treatment of choice to replace missing teeth. Despite its various advantages, failures are not uncommon. Recording accurate impressions is a crucial prerequisite to ensure the success of prosthesis. Gingival displacement, especially in restorations with subgingival margins, is extremely important to record the accurate impressions of the finish line. Aim and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude about gingival displacement materials and techniques among dental practitioners in Nagpur region. Materials and Methods: A survey consisting of 15 questions regarding gingival deflection method was distributed among 200 dental practitioners. The participants were approached personally with the printed questionnaire and through E-mail. Results: The survey showed that approximately 86% of the dental practitioners practicing in Nagpur region did not perform gingival displacement before making impressions. Out of 16% of the dentists who perform gingival displacement, only 10% of them were prosthodontists. The most common method used for gingival displacement was retraction cord. Better techniques such as cordless gingival displacement were used by only 6% of the dentists because of lack of knowledge and technique sensitivity of these materials. Financial concerns may also be a deterrent for performing gingival displacement in such cases. Conclusion: Hands-on experiences on gingival displacement need to be imparted at the undergraduate level and the importance of gingival displacement for the success of prosthesis needs to be conveyed to dental practitioners, so as to bring about a change which results in a better rehabilitation of patients with partial edentulism.
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Effect of various luting agents on retention of cement-retained implant restorations with different modifications - An in-vitro study p. 82
S Mohammed Imthiyas, Bala Subramanian, Prabhu Karupiah, A Kirubakaran, VC Karthik, Suganya Ganesan
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_33_18  
Introduction: Cement-retained restorations are the most common mode of attaining retention in implant prosthesis. Surface modifications can enhance the retention of the cement-retained implant restorations. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 copings (n = 45) were fabricated and divided into three groups based on the types of cements used: Group A – zinc phosphate cement, Group B – zinc polycarboxylate cement, and Group C – glass-ionomer cement. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups depending on the surface treatment employed: Subgroup 1 – unmodified copings (controlled group), Subgroup 2 – sandblasted copings, and Subgroup 3 – roughened abutment. The blocks with abutments on which the coping was cemented on them were locked on a universal testing machine. Results: The mean load required to debond the copings cemented with zinc phosphate cement under various surface modifications was found to be 154 N for unmodified copings, 184 N for sandblasted copings, and 171 N for roughened abutments. The mean load required to debond the copings cemented with zinc polycarboxylate cement under various surface modifications was found to be 212 N for unmodified copings, 325 N for sandblasted copings, and 390 N for roughened abutments, respectively. The mean load required to debond the copings cemented with Type 1 glass-ionomer cement under various surface modifications was found to be 302 N for unmodified copings, 413 N for sandblasted copings, and 412 N for roughened abutments. Conclusion: The retentive properties of the three types of cements tested in this study were statistically significant. Type 1 glass-ionomer cement shows the highest mean retentive strength, followed by zinc polycarboxylate and zinc phosphate cement. There was no statistically significant difference between the sandblasted and roughened abutment copings cemented with Type 1 glass-ionomer cement.
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Use and application of computer and internet in dental education among students of Nagpur city p. 87
Sanjana Agrawal, Anita Rama Kahar, Usha Radke, Surbhi Pandagale, Priya Agrawal, Jayashree Joshi
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_40_18  
Background: Computer and Internet has currently become most easily accessible vehicle for extracting and viewing the data to everybody. Each folk carry the Internet in our hand and use it in just one finger bit. In dental education, additional use of computer and Internet is not a story of happening once and whereas, it is a routine procedure. The computers and Internet is employed for teaching and learning purpose. For the students, the Internet is currently one in every of the foremost necessary sources of data for looking and resolving the queries in academics beneath the steering of revered colleges. Hence, we decided do conduct such study in three dental institutes of our Nagpur city. Aim: Assessment of computer and Internet use and its application in dental education among the dental students of three dental institutes of Nagpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among the first to final BDS students of three dental colleges of Nagpur city. Results: One hundred and twenty (16.12%) of the participants use the Internet for searching information in dentistry. Three hundred and eighty-five (51.74%) of them use Internet for searching textbooks, videos, and literature. Three hundred and two (40.59%) of them prefer to read text from a book than computer. Conclusion: Majority of the dental students use computer and Internet for their studies. At the identical time students were not a lot aware of e-books. They conjointly preferred to read text from a book. The preclinical year student's angle toward the use of computer and Internet was found to be more than clinical year students.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Software in forensic odontology p. 94
P Anuja, Nagabhushana Doggalli
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_14_18  
Let us now pause for a moment of science!! Technological advances are becoming more and more important in forensic sciences these days. Forensic odontology plays a major role in identifying those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. Various software, such as Windows Identification, Disaster and Victim Identification (DAVID) and automated dental identification system (ADIS), have been developed that greatly help in easier identification. With the development of various software such as Adobe Photoshop and Dentascan, it is possible to scan the dentition of a deceased within minutes. The various post processing software like Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems Incorporated, San Jose, California) allows visualization of the data adapted to every possible antemortem X-ray for identification. This review describes the significance of various software used in forensic odontology.
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Nanorobotic wonders: A revolutionary era in periodontics p. 101
Pratiksha Bordoloi, Sheikabba Shahira, Amitha Ramesh, Biju Thomas
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_29_18  
Greatness does not come in size. Surprises come in small packages. Robots have recently been introduced to undertake basic surgical procedures, and with the help of nanobiotechnology, another dimension of robotics has been developed as NANOROBOTS. Oral cavity is the mirror of the overall health of an individual. The various chronic inflammatory oral diseases influence the systemic health of an individual and vice versa. Various treatment modalities have been introduced for the prevention and management of periodontal disease. The introduction of nanorobots may possibly maintain the comprehensiveness of oral health. The dental application of nanorobots is leading to the emergence of nanodentistry. Nanorobots induce oral analgesia, desensitize tooth, and are also used in preventive, restorative, and curative procedures and major tooth repair. Treatment opportunities in periodontics are hypersensitivity cure, dentiforobots, bone replacement materials, nanoimplants, nanolasers, etc. Hence, the aim of this review article is to emphasize the use and the future scope of nanorobotics in periodontics.
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Role of acidic additives in noncaloric sweeteners in causation of dental erosion p. 106
Avijit Avasthi
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_34_18  
Dental erosion is a nondestructive carious process, slowly dissolving tooth structure because of extrinsic, intrinsic, and idiopathic causes, resulting in painless loss of tooth structure without the involvement of microorganisms. Polyols/noncaloric sweeteners are promoted extensively owing to cariostatic action and low-glycemic response, but pose a risk of dental erosion because of acidic additives incorporated into sugar-free products which cause demineralization of enamel. Erythritol, sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol are some of the polyols publicized in maintaining good oral health by the American Dental Association. A review of the existing literature was done by searching through databases such as PubMed, EBSCO, Hinari, and Sage on noncaloric sweeteners from February to end of May 2016 using keywords noncaloric sweetener, polyols, dental erosion, casein phosphopeptide (CPP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and prevention of erosion. Novel preventive strategies by infusing CPP ACP, milk protein casein, and fluoride into sugar-free formulations may resolve the cause of dental erosion.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip or palate syndrome: A review with rare case report p. 111
Aarati S Panchbhai
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_30_18  
Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip or palate (EEC) syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome, and very few cases are reported in the Indian literature. Ectodermal dysplasia constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorder characterized by various defects in hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands. The term “EEC syndrome” was coined by Rudiger et al. in 1970. The syndrome results from developmental anomalies that involve both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues and consists of EEC. It is a complex multiple congenital anomalies syndrome in which any of the three cardinal signs are present in variable expression, specific clinical pattern of defects may lead to correct diagnosis. Prosthodontic rehabilitation may aid in restoring the normal function and esthetic in such patients. The present article reviews the literature on EEC syndrome and reports on the Indian kindred consisting of two siblings with ectodermal dysplasia, one of them (a boy) presented with EEC syndrome.
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Ridge augmentation and endosseous implant placement with a staged approach p. 115
Manish A Ashtankar, Chandrashekhar R Shangonda
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_13_18  
Rehabilitation of edentulous site in the maxillary anterior area is always associated with esthetic consideration as a primary factor, especially in female patients. Simultaneously, sufficient bone quantity and quality is required for survival of endosseous implant. Hence, it is prudent to do ridge augmentation for a horizontal defect in the anterior maxillary area. Insufficient bone volume can be augmented by different methods, including particulate and block grafting materials, guided bone regeneration with or without growth and differentiation factors, ridge splitting, and expansion and distraction osteogenesis, either alone or in combination. These techniques may be used for horizontal/vertical ridge augmentation, socket preservation, and sinus augmentation. Here, we present a case of horizontal ridge augmentation achieved with allograft material and staged implant placement.
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Unusual foreign body on the palate in childhood: An indicator of poor parental supervision p. 120
Mabel O Etetafia, R Addisi, Clement Chinedu Azodo
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_15_18  
Foreign objects reported intraorally are more common in the floor of the mouth, cheek, and Wharton's duct and rarely in the palate and they include nuts, coin, magnet, wooden stick, pins, screws, button, batteries, or parts of toys. Monodora myristica (Gaertn) popularly called African nutmeg or calabash nutmeg as a foreign body in the palate has been reported. The objective of this report was to present two cases of impacted similar foreign objects on the palate of a 21-day-old neonate and a 13-month-old baby and to sensitize parents and caregivers on the possible causes of poor feeding in babies and the need for routine oral inspection. The babies' routine sucking was disrupted and accompanied with irritation and excessive crying with the foreign bodies on the palate. This prompted the mothers to look into the babies' mouths. The impacted substance was hard, nontender, and nonpulsatile, measuring approximately 18 mm × 10 mm located close to the midline for the neonate and on the left alveolar ridge for the second baby. After dislodging the object, it was found to be the half shell of the nut Monodora myristica (Gaertn), popularly called African nutmeg or calabash nutmeg. The nut is used as a local spice in preparing pepper soup for mothers soon after delivery. Adequate childcare with relevant supervision by parents will obviously prevent the introduction of foreign objects into their children's mouths. A routine observation of the children's mouth by parents or caregivers could lead to the discovery of foreign bodies before they are transferred to the esophagus or airway with the associated complications.
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Fusion and agenesis: Considerations in primary, mixed, and permanent dentition p. 124
Praveen Kumar Reddy Karnati, Anand Siddappa Tegginamani, Prashant Choudhary, Priyank Seth
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_24_18  
Tooth anomalies tend to become a challenge in the contemporary world with their diversified and gradual raise in prevalence due to genetic aberrations, trauma, and environmental influences. Fusion, one among the varied tooth anomalies is seen both in primary and permanent dentition either in maxillary or mandibular arches, makes its significance unique by altered pulp canal anatomy internally. Tooth size arch length discrepancies with increased caries risk externally and altered response to physiological resorption if permanent tooth is dichotomized from the same dental lamina internally, are more concerning areas. The present case report discloses a unilateral fusion of primary lateral incisor with canine and agenesis of permanent lateral incisor alleviating the eruption dogmata with a provision of physiological space maintainer in retaining the missing permanent lateral incisor till the late mixed dentition period.
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Endo-perio lesions: A diagnostic dilemma p. 128
Mohd Sibghatullah Khatib, Swapna V Devarasanahalli, Roopa R Nadig
DOI:10.4103/ijmd.ijmd_35_18  
Endodontic and dentistry surgical procedure has surpassed the success rates for ancient dental medicine and dentistry surgical procedures. Achieving primary closure with the grafts contains a positive result on guided tissue regeneration (GTR) outcome. New techniques of dentistry microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla conserving flaps with passive internal pad stitching, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and acquisition has conjointly shown to be helpful for GTR. The present case report describes a case of the localized primary periodontal lesion with secondary endodontic involvement in a mandibular first molar. The case was managed by root canal therapy followed by a periodontal regenerative procedure using GTR technique. Two years follow-up without replacement of the tooth with crown showed healing of the lesion with a minor defect in the restoration which was replaced by tooth-colored restoration.
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