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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 59-61

Correlation of dental caries and blood group in Western Punjab population in India


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Dentistry, M.D.M. Hospital, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Dentistry, Guru Kirpa Dental Clinic and Implant Centre, Bhadaur, Punjab, India
4 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, A.J. Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication28-Jan-2016

Correspondence Address:
Smit Singla
C/o Dr. Snehil, Guru Kirpa Dental Clinic, Jaid Market, Bhadaur - 148 102, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2229-6360.175034

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  Abstract 

Background: Prevalence and treatment of the caries disease are interconnected concepts. Association between dental caries and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to Western Punjab region.
Objective: To determine the severity of dental caries in each type of blood group (ABO).
Methods: The sample for the study consisted of 150 patients undergoing routine dental checkup in the dental center. Correlation between dental caries and blood groups were done using decayed, missing, and filled teeth index.
Results: There is increased the prevalence of dental caries in nonsecretor as compared to secretors in Western Punjab population.
Conclusion: Non secretors are more prone to dental caries as compared to secretors.

Keywords: Decayed, missing and filled teeth; dental caries; nonsecretors; secretors


How to cite this article:
Singla S, Verma A, Goyal S, Singla I, Shetty A. Correlation of dental caries and blood group in Western Punjab population in India. Indian J Multidiscip Dent 2015;5:59-61

How to cite this URL:
Singla S, Verma A, Goyal S, Singla I, Shetty A. Correlation of dental caries and blood group in Western Punjab population in India. Indian J Multidiscip Dent [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 May 22];5:59-61. Available from: http://www.ijmdent.com/text.asp?2015/5/2/59/175034




  Introduction Top


Dental caries remain the most common problem in dentistry. Dental plaque, dietary factors, oral hygiene are presumed to be major etiological factors, so most of the studies have an emphasis on these factors only, but the genetic factor is one of the major factor which is inherited from the birth, for example, blood groups. Every individual has their own blood group similar with caries index. ABO blood group is the most important blood-typing system because this system has significance beyond transfusion and transplantation as it determines many of digestive and immunological characteristics of the body.[1],[2]

The ABO blood type system comprises of four blood types: O, A, B, and AB. Blood group O erythrocytes have no true antigen, but blood serum of O-type individuals carries antibodies to both A and B antigens. Type A and B erythrocytes carry the A and B antigens, respectively, and make antibodies to the others. Type AB erythrocytes do not manufacture antibodies to other blood types because they have both A and B antigens. Anthropologists have used the ABO blood.[1],[3] The other important blood system is the Rhesus (Rh) system. This system is determined by the nature of different proteins present on the surface of erythrocytes.[1] The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index has been widely utilized in epidemiological surveys of oral health. It is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for measuring and comparing the experience of dental caries in populations. The index expresses the mean number of DMFT in individual whose DMFT index is taken.[4]

In this study, we have correlated the severity of dental caries using DMFT index with patients having different blood groups. We tried to found which blood group is more prone to dental caries and which blood group is less prone to dental caries. The aim of this study was to investigate the association, if any, between ABO blood group and severity of dental caries in Western Punjab population.


  Methods Top


One hundred and fifty patients belonging to age group of the third and fourth decade were included in this study, which came for routine dental checkup in at private dental center. This was a cross-sectional double-blind study. The examiners were not aware of the blood group of the patients and the laboratory technicians were not aware of the caries index of the patients. Healthy patients without any clinical lesion in oral cavity and does not have any tobacco or related habits and patients should not be under any medication were included in this study. Patient was informed and asked to provide informed consent for their participation in the study. Age, gender, medical, and dental histories were recorded for each patient. As said earlier, healthy patients were included in the study without having any systemic disorder.

Decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and blood analysis

Full mouth examination was conducted for all the patients and DMFT index was recorded and calculated. Nonfasting venous blood was collected from each subject and analyzed for determination of ABO blood group and Rh factor.


  Results Top


Characteristics of the study population are shown in [Table 1]. Female constituted about 55.3% and male constituted about 44.7% of the study sample. About 39.3% of the study samples were group O, whereas only 2.7% were group AB. More than 95% of the population was Rh-positive, whereas only about 4.7% were Rh-negative.
Table 1: The characteristics of the population which were included in the study group

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There was increased in the prevalence of dental caries in nonsecretors as compared to secretors. There were more incidences of dental caries in A and B blood groups with high DMFT score, whereas there was less incidences of dental caries in blood groups O and AB with low DMFT score. Mean of DMFT score in secretors were 4.11 and 4.01, respectively, whereas mean of DMFT score in nonsecretors were 6 and 6.12, respectively, as shown in [Table 2]. Correlation between blood group and DMFT score is shown in [Table 2].
Table 2: There were more incidences of dental caries in A and B blood groups with high decayed, missing, and filled teeth score, whereas there was less incidence of dental caries in blood groups O and AB with low decayed, missing, and filled teeth score

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  Discussion Top


Saliva originates from several specialized glands located under the tongue and along the inside of the mouth. These are called the parotid gland and the submaxillary-sublingual glands. Since mucins are composed of glycoproteins, it should be no surprise that ABO blood type antigens are copiously produced by the submaxillary-sublingual salivary glands and extensively distributed in human saliva.[5] Depending on the amount of secretion of saliva in the patients, the blood antigens are secreted into the saliva and have been proposed to be growth medium for the bacteria to grow and hereby held indirectly responsible for growth of bacteria causing dental caries.[5]

The A, B, and H antigens in saliva are known to interact chemically with the taste buds, and blood group antigens are found in different concentrations among the various different taste buds. The type O (or H) antigen reacts with the majority of cells in all taste buds; the B antigen was expressed by the majority of taste cells but not by other epithelial cells. The A antigen was significantly less in the certain taste buds than in others.[6]

Specific immune defense against the bacteria that are commonly held responsible for the initiation of caries, the Mutans streptococci, mainly comprising streptococci Mutans and streptococci Sobrinus is thought to depend on salivary antibodies. The major salivary immunoglobulin (Ig) is secretory IgA (S-IgA) which occurs at widely ranging concentrations in resting whole saliva (approximately 100–300 µg/ml in adults). S-IgA is the product of the common mucosal immune system which consists of B and T lymphocytes and their progeny. Human IgA occurs in two subclasses, IgA1 and IgA2 and both occur in saliva, usually with a predominance of IgA1 (approximately 60%).[7],[8]

The tissue localization of the histo-blood group antigens has shown that the antigens in the tissues correspond to the erythrocyte blood group, but the tissue expression is dependent on the secretor status of the individual. Secretor status is secretion of blood group antigens ABO (H), which may be a factor influencing the development of systemic oral diseases.[9],[10] The antigenic or carbohydrate structure of blood groups in body fluids and cell surfaces plays a major role in regulation of oral bacteria. In addition, a large number of carbohydrates act as the microorganisms' receptors. Thus, secretion of these antigens in body fluids creates a competitive condition between these antigens and epithelial cells of the oral cavity to be the receptors of microorganisms.[1],[9],[11]

Arneberg et al. in 1976 and Holbrook et al. in 1989 concluded that secretor blood group had the less incidence blood caries similar to our study.[5],[12] There had been numerous studies comparing the incidence of caries in different study groups, but very few of study was found comparing the incidence of caries in different blood groups and association between dental caries and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location.


  Conclusion Top


To conclude since blood groups and secretor status have a significant role in dental caries. From our study we conclude that number of carious tooth is lower in secretors as compared to nonsecretors in Western Punjab region.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Al Ghamdi AS. Association between ABO blood groups and severity of chronic periodontitis. JKAU Med Sci 2009;16:31-41.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Skripal' IG. ABO system of blood groups in people and their resistance to certain infectious diseases (prognosis). Mikrobiol Z 1996;58:102-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hakomori S. Antigen structure and genetic basis of histo-blood groups A, B and O: Their changes associated with human cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999;1473:247-66.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Cypriano S, de Sousa Mda L, Wada RS. Evaluation of simplified DMFT indices in epidemiological surveys of dental caries. Rev Saude Publica 2005;39:285-92.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Arneberg P, Kornstad L, Nordbö H, Gjermo P. Less dental caries among secretors than among non-secretors of blood group substance. Scand J Dent Res 1976;84:362-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Hoskins LC, Agustines M, McKee WB, Boulding ET, Kriaris M, Niedermeyer G. Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems. Isolation and properties of fecal strains that degrade ABH blood group antigens and oligosaccharides from mucin glycoproteins. J Clin Invest 1985;75:944-53.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Russell MW, Hajishengallis G, Childers NK, Michalek SM. Secretory immunity in defense against cariogenic mutans streptococci. Caries Res 1999;33:4-15.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Bennadi D, Reddy V, Kshetrimayum N. Influence of genetic factor on dental caries. IJRPB 2014;2:1196-207.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Campi C, Escovich L, Valdés V, García Borrás S, Racca L, Racca A, et al. Secretor status and ABH antigens expression in patients with oral lesions. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2007;12:E431-4.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Pai GP, Dayakar MM, Shaila M, Dayakar A. Correlation between “ABO” blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in South Kanara district, Karnataka state, India. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2012;16:519-23.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.
Moshaverinia M, Golfeshan F, Sabzghabaie M. Evaluation of the relationship between the secretion of ABO blood groups antigens in saliva and DMFS caries index. Sadra Med Sci J 2013;1:253-64.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Holbrook WP, Blackwell CC. Secretor status and dental caries in Iceland. FEMS Microbiol Immunol 1989;1:397-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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