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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 500-506

Programmed self-cell suicide (Apoptosis) - Current review, concepts and future prospects


1 Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Oral Pathology, Saraswati Dental College and Hospital, Lucknow, India
2 Professor and Head, Dept. of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India
3 Professor, Dept. of Oral Pathology, Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India
4 Professor, Dept. of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India

Correspondence Address:
J P Rajguru
Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Oral Pathology, Saraswati Dental College and Hospital, Lucknow
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Homeostasis of tissues depends upon cell division and proliferation. Well-organized or programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an intrinsic mechanism of our human body playing in various physiological and pathological processes during evolution. This type of programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for development of highly cellular organisms. Apoptosis plays a major role in embryogenesis and many diseases like neoplasia, necrosis, acquired-immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and neurogenic disorders. It releases new essential activated death receptors and mitochondria, which are the beginning of the pathway proposed for initiating apoptosis. This process is regulated by intra-and extrasomatic signals. Damage of cell results in activation of a family of caspases (CASP). Caspases are released by inactivated proenzymes activating various organelles in cytosol and nucleus. This leads to cellular monopoly change and cell death. Uncontrolled mechanisms of signals lead to pathology in the body. Hence, clinically much pathology is the ultimate result of either increased or decreased apoptosis.


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